Monday, May 23, 2022

Roll of Honor at the Waikīkī War Memorial Natatorium in Honolulu, Hawai'i

In honor of the upcoming Memorial Day and for The Honor Roll Project, I decided to transcribe the War Memorial Honor Roll at the Waikīkī War Memorial Natatorium in Honolulu, Hawai'i.

The plaque outside the War Memorial Natatorium honors 101 residents of the then-territory of Hawai'i who died in service in World War I.  Flowers and lei are presented at the monument each Veterans Day and Memorial Day.  The plaque was created and placed in 1931.

Above:  Roll of Honor - Pihana [cropped; credit Pihana Kea, November 2017] / Waikiki Natatorium / CC BY 2.0

Below:  20080525246 [cropped, 25 May 2008]  / Waikiki Natatorium / CC BY 2.0

Here is the transcription of the memorial.  The Latin phrase "Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori" is a line from the Odes (III.2.13) by the Roman lyric poet Horace.  The line translates as "It is sweet and fitting to die for the homeland."

Roll of Honor
“Dulce Et Decorum Est Pro Patria Mori”
In the Service of the United States
Vidal Agar | Adam Young Aki | Frank K. Aki Jr. | Bragee Arcilo | Ariston Arozal | Cipriano Bega | Anastacio Bueno | Esteban Castillo | Richard Belmont Caston | Henry Henley Chapman | Chin Sung Choy | Bidal Ciempoon | Alexander C. Cornelison | Julian Daguman | Juan De la Cruz | Carel J. De Roo | Frank P. Dolin | George K. Dwight | Rufino Esbra | Anatalio Eugenio | Henry J. Evans | Ephraim H. Ezera | Louis J. Gaspar | Francis J. Green | Abraham Hauli | Edmund Hedemann | Daniel K. Iopa | Edward J. Iskow | Kuulei John Kaea | Edward N. Kahokuoluna | Sam Kainoa | Charles Kalaeloa | Apau Kau | Charles Kino | Edward K. Kuaimoku | Han Young Lee | John A. Makua | Kenneth D. Marr |  Anthony R. Mattos | Philip Overton Mills | Sam Moke | Mariano Monsieur | Peter Naia | George O’Connor | John S. O’Dowda | Aurelio Orbe | Joe Puali | Juan Quibal | Manuel Ramos | William Russell Riley | Richard F. Rodrigues | John R. Rowe | Pablo R. Santos | Jose Sarsosa | William K. Scholtz | Rufo Tenebre | Moses Thomas | Paustino Tingking | George B. Tom | George M. Turner | Henry K. Unuivi | Manuel G. Valent | Frank C. Viera Jr. | James Waialeale | Levi Waihoikala | Clarence J. Watson | David L. Withington
Paul H. Auerbach | Archibald Bal | Frederick Char | Edward Fuller | Manuel Gouveia Jr. | Ivan Mantrose Graham | Herman Kaaukea | John Kana | Ralph J. Kauhane | Frank Raymond | John A. Silva | Charles F. A. Warren Jr.
In the Service of Great Britain
F. S. Blackwood | James H. R. Bryant | Kenneth Cameron | B. Clair Churchill | Alexander Collie | Henry L. Davies | J. Douglas | H. Fogarty | John Scott French | Edward Jones | R. L. Leander | Ted Llewellyn | Robert G. Mackenzie | Norman Maclean | James P. May | James Arthur Miller | Gideon Potter | Robert Sharp | Gordon Turner | John Turner | Claude O. H. Usborne | Thomas P. Williams

Above:  Flowers by the honor roll of the dead [cropped; 11 November 2011] / Waikiki Natatorium / CC BY 2.0 - click on the image to make it larger.

Below:  US and Hawaii Flags over the Natatorium [cropped; 11 November 2011] / Waikiki Natatorium / CC BY 2.0 

The War Memorial Natatorium was built, pursuant to 1921 legislation, to honor all of the more than 10,000 men and women from the Hawai'ian Islands who served in the Great War. The Natatorium, completed in 1927, was designed by architect Lewis Hobart and features a Beaux-Arts archway leading to its ocean-water swim basin. The archway, as well as the monument’s bleachers and bathhouses, include classical ornamentation such as friezes, pediments, medallions, statuary, and cornices.

Below:  Waikiki War Memorial Natatorium Aerial [cropped; credit Ron Slausen, 19 May                                                  2009] / Waikiki Natatorium / CC BY 2.0

According to Act 15 of the 1921 Territorial Legislature, the memorial “shall include a swimming course at least 100 meters in length.”  The saltwater pool is also 40 meters wide.  When it opened on August 24, 1927, Olympic Gold Medalist and “father of modern surfing” Duke Kahanamoku dove into the pool to take the first ceremonial swim. It hosted celebrity swimmers like Esther Williams, Buster Crabbe, Johnny Weissmuller, and 34 members of the International Swimming Hall of Fame. The Hawai’i Department of Education used the pool for its mandatory elementary Learn to Swim Program.

Due to deterioration, the site was indefinitely closed to the public in 1979. The site is on both the Hawai'i and National Registers of Historic Places. It was named to the National Trust for Historic Preservation’s 11 Most Endangered list in 1995, and a National Treasure by the National Trust in 2014.

Above:  The Waikīkī Natatorium War Memorial, as seen from the hau tree terrace [August 2008]  / Rosa SayCC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Below:  Sunrise at the Waikiki Natatorium [31 October 2021; cropped] / Flip Flops Hawaii / CC BY-SA 2.0

In 2001, the exterior façade, locker rooms and lifeguard offices (for the adjacent Kaimana Beach), volleyball court, and parking lot were repaired and reopened to the public. Restoration of the bleachers and saltwater pool, however, was put on hold.  Governments and organizations at the local, state, and national levels are still working on options to restore the natatorium.  

Above:  Honolulu [22 August 2005; note medallion at far right] / My Photo Album 2007 /  CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Below:  Waikiki Natatorium [Medallion, 14 November 2009] / jongela19 / CC BY-ND 2.0

© Amanda Pape - 2022 - e-mail me! 

Sunday, May 8, 2022

Happy Mother's Day

Geraldine Margaret Guokas Pape (1928-2019) with her first grandchild, Eric Bolme, in Kirkland, Washington, September 1986.

© Amanda Pape - 2022 - e-mail me!

Sunday, April 17, 2022

Easter 55 Years Ago

Easter 1967 - Typical family photo where some of us aren't looking at the camera and/or some of us aren't smiling.  Back row:  Geraldine Margaret Guokas Pape (1928-2019), Mary, Frederick Henry Pape (1929-2017), Brian.  Front row:  Amanda, Mark, Karen.  Still in our Easter clothes (Dad still had that shirt when he died), at my grandmother Sara Wolfe Guokas Archibald's (1907-1997) house at 1118 Bay Oaks in Houston, Texas.

© Amanda Pape - 2022 - e-mail me!

Wednesday, April 13, 2022

Indexing My In-Laws in the 1950 Census

The 1950 United States Census was released on April 1, and since then, I've been doing some indexing work (to make it searchable) at both the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) site and at FamilySearch's community project site.

Machine-learning and artificial intelligence (AI) processes were used to create an initial index for both sites.  The NARA site has a built-in transcription feature to allow you to correct and add names to the name index, which was available on April 1.

FamilySearch has been rolling out its index project state by state, as its partner Ancestry does its own machine-learning AI process to interpret handwriting.  There are three steps:  Name Review, Family Review, and Header Review.

In Name Review, you can pick an available state and then enter a surname you'd like to search for.  I noticed a few days ago that Name Review was available for Florida, where my husband's family was living in 1950.  So of course I searched for Gresham!

I worked through a few Gresham families that weren't mine, but in not too long, my Greshams showed up! The name review process was pretty easy.  You basically marked the name as a match, edit it if the transcription was wrong, or you could also mark Unsure (if it was very unreadable, for example).  "Not a Person" was used to mark lines with notes such as "vacant" or "not at home."  "Transcription Error" is not used very often, but I had a case where the AI interpreted the first name as a surname, so I used it there.

Mark's family was pretty much correct.  The enumerator has beautiful handwriting, and even included middle names (my mother-in-law Jewel did not have a middle name, so her maiden name of Moore is included).  The enumerator did forget to dot the i in my father-in-law Francis' first name.  This listing does create some questions, as I thought my father-in-law's middle name was Edward (a name used a lot in the family) and not Edwin. and I thought Jewel's name was spelled with one L.  I transcribed those names as they appear, however, because that is what you are supposed to do in a transcription - write it as it is, don't make corrections.

A few days later, Florida was available for Family Review.  In this process, you group households together, and also index all the answers to other questions asked of individuals on the census.  Once again, I could search for Greshams, and eventually mine turned up.

The first step asked you to select all members of the household.  The machine-learning AI attempted to do this based on information in the first four columns of the census page, but you could make corrections.

My Greshams were listed at the bottom of a census page, so I was also asked to look at the next page and see if any other household members were there.  That wasn't the case (youngest sister June was not born until 1952), but here is what that next screen looks like anyway.  Enumerators were supposed to check a box (visible in the image above) at the bottom of the previous page if the household continued onto the next page, but they did not always remember to do that.

The next question asked you to select the correct street name (in the far left column, usually written sideways) from those the machine-learning AI had identified.  If the name was missing from the selections, you could click "Other" and add it.  You could also make corrections to the street name if needed.  In 1950, the Gresham family was living at 1505 N. 50th Avenue (in a house that apparently no longer exists) in Pensacola.

Next. the program zoomed in so you could add the house and apartment/unit number (if there were ones), and record the dwelling serial number as well as some answers to household questions.  The enumerator was not supposed to repeat the street name on the apartment number line, so I left that out.  

Next, you reviewed and made any corrections (to transcription errors) to the names and relationships.  I did not have to make any changes in this section.

Then you reviewed race, gender, and current age.  The AI was generally pretty good at getting these right.  The exception was for children less than a year old, where the enumerator was to record the month of birth.  Apparently the AI was expecting numbers and not text in this field, because it's almost always been wrong.

Then you reviewed marital status, birthplace (which was followed by a code), and naturalization status (if applicable).  Mark and his parents were born in Texas; his sister was born in Washington, D.C. while the family was living in that area during World War II.  The codes for the birthplaces often needed correction, because the AI usually interpreted a zero to be the capital letter O.

The next columns addressed work status.  Not surprisingly, Francis (like most married younger men in that era) was working (the automatic assumption being outside the home), and Jewel (like most married younger women in that era) was housekeeping in the home.  Other choices for question #15 were "Other" and "Unable to Work," the latter often the case with older people.

If the answer to the previous question was "Working," these next fields were completed.  Francis worked 40 hours a week as a lithographic supervisor in civil service with the government (he supervised a print shop at the Pensacola Naval Air Station).  The last three columns included additional codes.  These almost always needed correction from what the AI saw, and often the AI saw something in fields that were empty!

Unfortunately, none of my Greshams were entered on lines that were supposed to get asked the supplemental questions, so this was the end of the Family Review process for them.  I clicked the Save button, and then was asked if I wanted to continue to do the page.  I always go ahead and finish the entire page, before conducting searches for any other surnames.

© Amanda Pape - 2022 - e-mail me!

Sunday, April 10, 2022

Happy National Siblings Day!

Mark, Mary, Karen, Amanda, and Brian, December 1985, Austin, Texas

© Amanda Pape - 2022 - e-mail me!

Friday, April 1, 2022

April Fool - Biggest Surprise in the 1950 Census (So Far)

The 1950 United States Census was released at 11pm on March 31 (in my location - Texas) on the National Archives website, and in the span of about an hour and a half, I already found my spouse (and his parents and sisters), my parents and grandparents, my husband's grandparents, and a few of our aunts and uncles that were out on their own.  I'm about to go to bed and get some sleep (it's almost 1am), but I will be back at this tomorrow.

The National Archives site has been easy to use.  They used machine learning to teach the software to decipher handwriting, so there is a rudimentary index.  I'd also done some preparatory work to determine likely enumeration districts in advance.  

Here is the first entry I came across that surprised me.  I was searching for my husband's aunt, Ivis Moore Mew (1905-2004), who I knew lived in Corpus Christi, Texas, in 1950.  What I did NOT expect was to find her sharing a home with my spouse's paternal grandmother (Ivis' sister's mother-in-law), Betty Dickson Gresham (1888-1976)!  I knew Betty was also in Corpus Christi at the time, but I wasn't sure where, and I did not expect to find them together!  They were sharing a house at 101 Roosevelt and were both widows, Betty since 1941, and Ivis for just a year.  Ivis was still working as a registered nurse at Spohn Hospital; Betty was apparently retired.

Click on the image below (a snip from the census page) to make it larger.

© Amanda Pape - 2022 - e-mail me!

Monday, March 21, 2022

1950 Census Prep: Where Was Charles Guokas III in 1950?

I've been preparing for the upcoming release of the 1950 United States Census on April 5, 2022, by trying to figure out where various family members were in April 1950.  The Census is supposed to have a rudimentary index when it is released (thanks to machine learning to recognize handwriting), but I want to be prepared to browse by enumeration district if necessary.  And therefore, I need to know where family members were in April 1950, so I can find the correct enumeration district (ED) in advance.

In many cases, I already have addresses, thanks to my late mother and thanks to so many city directories being available online.  One challenge I ran into, however, was trying to locate my maternal uncle, my mother's older brother Charles Thomas Guokas III (1927-1999).

Charles Guokas III as a junior at the University of Texas at Austin.  From the 1949 Cactus yearbook, page 92, image 96.

Uncle Charles, who served in the Navy during World War II, appears in the 1949 yearbook for the University of Texas at Austin.  He is also listed in the Austin City Directory for that year (page 300).  The latter says he is a student at U of T residing in FPHA Dorm H.

So just where was FPHA Dorm H?  It's not on the UT-Austin campus today.

I made a comment on a post about another dorm in The UT History Corner blog, and received a private reply from blog author Jim Nicar.  He said,

Thousands of veterans, returning home after the war, decided to go to college under the G.I. Bill. For UT, enrollment more than doubled in the short three months between June and September 1946, which required some quick action on hiring more instructors, finding classroom space, and getting additional housing. ...

Part of the housing issue was solved through the FPHA - the Federal Public Housing Authority - which provided used, wartime "hutments" and transported Bachelor Officer Quarters, or "BOQs", from military bases to college campuses as temporary dorms. The University installed a row of BOQs along today's San Jacinto Boulevard, most of them at the north end, and gave them letter names.

Attached is a 1950 map of campus, with the "H Dorm" circled in the upper right. Today, it's the site of the San Jacinto Parking Garage

A portion of that map, from the Office of the Supervising Architect and dated 16 March 1950, is below (click on the image for a larger view).  I've also annotated it to show the enumeration district it fell in - more on how I found that next.

When I was prepping for the release of the 1940 Census ten years ago, I used a number of great census tools on Stephen P. Morse's website.  The Unified 1880-1950 Census ED Finder includes a tool to find and view ED maps for a city or county from the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).  For example, here is a portion of the 1950 ED map for Austin (click on the image to make it larger):

This map has tape running right through the area where the FPHA Dorm H was located, so I felt I needed a little additional information to locate its ED.  When you use the Unified 1950 Census ED Finder. you can choose to view a description of the ED's boundaries from NARA microfilm.  Here is the description for ED 256-49 (the 256 indicates that it is Austin) - click on the image to make it larger.

After seeing what the boundaries were, and drawing them on the 1950 map of the University of Texas campus, I feel confident that FPHA Dorm H is in ED 256-49.  When the 1950 Census is released on April 1, I can use the link on the Universal 1950 Census Image Viewer page to maneuver directly to Texas ED 256-49, and browse through all the images of census pages in that ED until I find Uncle Charles.

That is, assuming he still lived in FPHA Dorm H in April 1950.

Uncle Charles does not appear in the 1950 UT-Austin yearbook.  Furthermore, he ultimately graduated from what was was then North Texas State College (NTSC, now the University of North Texas or UNT) in Denton on June 3, 1951, with a Bachelor of Business Administration degree in Management.  However, he does not appear in the 1950 nor the 1951 NTSC yearbooks.

I used the same process I described above to get a map of the 1950 EDs for the city of Denton, where NTSC (now UNT) is located.  You can see a block marked N.T.S.C. in the image below (click on it to make it larger).  However, I had a feeling the same situation was occurring at NTSC as at UT-Austin, with the college rapidly expanding.  Furthermore, I attended UNT in person in the spring of 2006 (to finish my masters in library science), and I knew some of the older buildings on campus extended beyond the area marked as the college on this map.

I commented on a post about early dorms in the UNT University Libraries' 125 Year Archival Retrospective blog.  I got an e-mail reply from Perri Hamilton with the Special Collections department that included a scan of a campus map from the July 1949 college bulletin.  She also told me, 

Most of the residence Halls that were running between 1949 and 1951 were first opened for women and then were changed over to hold men as more dorms were built. Below is a list of dorms or other structures used to house students during these years: 

Marquis Hall - Chilton Hall - Terrill Hall - Music Hall - Orchestra Hall - Oak Street Hall - Vet Village (married couples) - Bruce Hall - Legett Halls (a collection of rooming houses)

I also looked at the 1949-1950 catalog online, and found that Marquis, Terrill, Oak Street, and Bruce Halls were for women (page 64).  Chilton and Legett were men's dorms, along with Ramey Courts, as well as the Little Dormitories, which do not appear on the 1949 map but are, like Legett Halls, "four blocks from the library" (page 66).  The catalog does not mention Music or Orchestra Halls being used as dormitories.

Below, I annotated the map she sent to include the relevant EDs from the NARA map above.  I marked the relevant dorms with red dots.  Since I don't know which dorm Uncle Charles lived in, I will start my search with ED 61-13 (since it contains two of the most relevant dorms, Chilton and Ramey Courts), followed by ED 61-14 (Legett Halls and possibly Little Dormitories) and then ED 61-12 (Music and Orchestra Halls).  Click on the image to make it larger.

© Amanda Pape - 2022 - e-mail me!

Thursday, March 17, 2022

Happy Birthday to My Sister!

Karen in her First Holy Communion dress, May 1965

© Amanda Pape - 2022 - e-mail me!

Friday, March 4, 2022

Happy 89th Birthday, Aunt Beete!

Today my dad's youngest sister, Marilyn Electa Pape Hedger, turns 89!  She has six children, twenty-six grandchildren, and at least thirty great-grandchildren (I've lost count).  The picture below was taken at her 80th birthday party in Orlando, Florida, thrown by her offspring, which my parents attended.

Above:  Geraldine Margaret Guokas Pape, Marilyn Electa Pape Hedger, and Frederick Henry Pape, 2 March 2013, Orlando, Florida

Dad always called her "Bebe" (pronounced beeb), so that's what we called her growing up, although most of my cousins called her Aunt Beete or Beetie (pronounced beet-ee or bee-tee), and that's what my siblings and I call her now.

© Amanda Pape - 2022 - e-mail me!

Wednesday, March 2, 2022

Amanda Remembers "Amanda Remembers"

Genealogy guru Thomas MacEntee asked an interesting question today (in honor of Dr. Seuss Day - it's also National Read Across America Day) in his newsletter:

What children's book title would best describe your family history?

Amanda Remembers, by Robert Kraus, was one of the first books I got as a kid.  It was published in 1965, the year I turned age eight.  I picked this picture book out as a child simply because it had my first name on the cover.  Amanda was not a particularly popular given name the year I was born (I was named in honor of Texas Governor Miriam Amanda Ferguson), and there were very few children's books with an Amanda as a character, let alone the title character.

In the story, Amanda's mother has discarded Amanda's two favorite (but worn out) toys, a doll and a stuffed dog, and Amanda recalls memorable adventures with them.  (There is a happy ending.)  I love the soft colored pencil illustrations and the Victorian dress of the characters.  I still have a copy of this book on my shelves.

Anyway, Amanda Remembers is certainly an apt children's book title to describe my family history - or at least, my pursuit of it, especially through this blog.

© Amanda Pape - 2022 - e-mail me!